The king moves exactly one square horizontally, vertically or diagonally, A special move with the king known as casting is allowed only once per player, per game(see below).
A rook moves any number of vacant squares horizontally or vertically. It also is moved when casting.
A bishop moves any number of vacant squares diagonally.
The queen moves any number of vacant squares horizontally,vertically or diagonally.
A knight moves to one of the nearest squares not on the same rank, file, or diagonal.
(This can be thought of as moving two squares horizontally then one square horizontally then one square vertically,
or moving one square horizontally then two squares vertically-i.e in an "L" pattern.) The knight is not blocked by other pieces;
it jumpto the new location.
Pawns have the most complex rules of movement:
A pawn move straight forword one square, if that square is vacant. If it has not yet move, a pawn also has the option of moving two squares straight forword, provided both squares are vacant. Pawns cannot move backwords.
A pawn, unlike other pieces, captures differently from how it moves. A pawn can capture an enemy piece on either of the two squares diagonally in front of the pawn. it cannot move to those squares when vacant expect when capturing en passant.
If a player's king is placed in check and there is no legal move that player can make to escape check, then the king is said to be checkmated, the game ends, and that player loses.